“Dilation of the ventricles (hydrocephalus chronicus) is frequently found in the insane…”
William Griesinger of Germany thought (correctly) that there was a relation between brain morphology and psychosis.
“…considerable atrophy of the brain corresponds to a condition of profound mental weakness.”
He described “melancholia” and “psychosis”. The brain morphology was confirmed by Jacobi and Winkler in 1927. They found ventriculomegaly. Griesinger called mental disease “insanity”. At his time the term ‘schizophrenia’ had not been invented. [It should also be noted that the term 'mental weakness' in the above quote was Griesinger's term for serious mental illness.--We maintain that it is wrong-headed to believe that mental illness entails derogatory weakness/"weakness-of-character".]
Certain drugs act on dopamine. MAOI’s block the metabolism of dopamine and are psychoactive. Many other psychoactive drugs have been found to act on dopamine. Amphetamine causes the release of dopamine into the synapse. Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine. Dopamine can be inactivated by COMT.
Antipsychotics are considered to block dopamine receptors. Dopa increases the synthesis of dopamine.
Various drugs act on neurotransmitter reuptake, synthesis, storage, release, breakdown, etc. Certain drugs are receptor antagonists.
Glutamate and GABA are also neurotransmitters.
Catcholamies have been suspected in mental disease. Some theories postulate abnormal Catecholamines.
Fluoxetine and imipramine block serotonin reuptake.
Wernicke studied alcoholism using neuropathology. “Wernicke’s encephalopathy” is caused by alcoholism.
Nissl, Alzheimer, Spielmayar and the Vogts also made major contributions to neuropathology. This approach was scientific as opposed to the approach of Freud.
“All our provisional ideas of psychology will someday be based on organic structure.”
People who favor an organic approach (including myself) were called “organicists” by Roizin. The organicists were neglected by various psychoanalytic schools according to Roizin, who himself was an organicist.
Griesinger, Alzheimer, Nissl, the Vogts, Roizin and other neuropathologists all demonstrated neuropathology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is organic. Finding the correct treatment is another story. I favor a brain chemistry diet.